পরিবার পরিকল্পনা অধিদপ্তর
Bangladesh Family Planning Program evolved through a series of development phases that took place during the last 52 years. Family planning efforts in this country began in the early 1950s with voluntary efforts of a group of social and medical workers. Categorical FP program emerged from 1965-95 with the objective to control population growth as a strategy of economic development. The Family Planning Program in Bangladesh has undergone a number of transitional phases. The phases may be illustrated as follows:
Phase I : 1953-59: Voluntary and semi-government efforts
- Family Planning Association initiated a family planning program in 1953 as a voluntary effort.
- The effort was limited to the small-scale contraceptive distribution services in urban areas particularly through hospitals and clinics.
Phase ll : 1960-64: Government-sponsored clinic-based Family Planning Program
- In 1960 the government-sponsored clinic-based family planning activities under health services started.
- The Government set up a target of providing family planning services to 6.7 percent eligible couples and opened a family planning center in every hospital and Rural Dispensary.
Phase lll : 1965-70: Field-based Government Family Planning Program
- The family planning program was launched throughout the country as a priority program.
- A massive field-oriented family planning program administered by a BOARD.
- Full-time field staff and part-time village organizers known as dai (a female village mid-wife) were recruited and trained to provide motivation and service close to the door-steps of the rural people.
- Selected clinical and non-clinical methods offered.
(The program came to a standstill during the Liberation war in 1971.)
Phase IV : 1972-74: Integrated Health & Family Planning Program
- The administrative process for decision-making was shifted from the autonomous Family Planning Board and the Council to the Ministry of Health and Family Planning.
- Family planning services functionally integrated with health services at the field level.
- The oral pill was introduced in the family planning program as a method of contraception.
- The provision of part-time village level dais was abolished.
Phase V : 1975-80: Maternal and Child Health (MCH)-based Multi-sectoral Program
- In August 1975, a separate Directorate of Family Planning and an independent Division of Population Control and Family Planning in the Ministry of Health were created.
- A National Population Council - the highest policy-making body - was constituted with the President of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh as the chairman and development-concerned ministries as members.
- A Central Coordination Committee was also formed with the Minister for Health and Family Planning as chairman and secretaries of concerned ministries as members to coordinate implementation and review the progress of multi-sectoral population activities under different ministries.
- In January 1976, the Government declared the rapid growth of the population as the number-1 problem of the country.
- In June 1976, the Government approved a National Population Policy outline.
- Full-time male and female field functionaries were recruited on regular basis to cause a thrust of the MCH-FP program in rural Bangladesh.
Phase VI : 1980-85: Functionally Integrated Program
- Delivery of MCH-FP services was functionally integrated with Health at Upazila level and below.
- MCH-FP became also a function of health officials.
- The National Population Council (NPC) was reconstituted into a high powered National Council for Population Control (NCPC) headed by the President of the Council of Ministers.
- An Executive Committee headed by the Minister for Health and Population was formed.
- An unified command had been established at the top by the merger of the two divisions of Health and Population Control under one Secretary of the Ministry of Health and Population Control.
- Upazila Family Planning Committee had been formed to be chaired by the Chairman of Upazila Parishad for facilitating the implementation of the program at the local level.
Phase VII: 1985-90: Intensive Family Planning Program
- A broad-based multi-dimensional intensive MCH-based family planning program was launched.
- Improved family planning and MCH services were provided.
- Rapid FP- MCH infrastructural development by commissioning more service centers (Union Health & Family Welfare Centers---UH & FWC) in rural areas was initiated.
- Unit-wise FWA registers were introduced for record-keeping family planning and demographic events of households.
- Satellite clinic - an outreach activity – was introduced to deliver MCH-FP services in remote & rural areas.
- The involvement of community leaders and NGOs was increased.
- The branch of the National Council for Population Control was set up in each district under the chairmanship of the District coordinator.
- FP-MCH program as “Social Movement” was launched.
Phase VIII: 1990-95: Reduction of the rapid growth of population through intensive service delivery and community participation
- Expansion of MCH-FP service delivery with enhanced quality of care.
- Increased resource allocation for program implementation.
- Promoting family planning as an integral part of development activities through inter-sectoral collaboration.
- Mobilizing community support and participation.
- Increased involvement of NGOs and private sectors for supplementing and complementing government efforts.
- Enhancing women’s status through education and participation in social, economic, and political life.
(The Family Planning program had been implemented through an interim plan during 1995-97).
Phase IX: 1998-2003: Health and Population Sector Program (HPSP)
- Health and Population Sector Program was introduced in 1998.
- However, the government upon review, decided in January 2003 to reestablish separate organizational structures and authority for health and family planning as they existed before July 1998.
Phase X: 2003-2011: Health, Nutrition, and Population Sector Program (PSP)
To overcome the multidimensional problems and to meet the challenge according to the spirit of the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), the Government of Bangladesh launched the Health, Nutrition, and Population Sector Program (PSP) in 2003. This aimed to reform the health and population sector. The program entails the provision of a package of essential and quality health care services responsive to the needs of the people, especially those of children, women, the elderly, and the poor.
Within the HNPSP, the health and family planning structure is now functioning under a separate management system. In the meantime, the FWA register and house visitation by the FWAs have been reintroduced in the program after 5 years. The MIS unit of the Family Planning Directorate has been functioning independently as before after 5 years and started publishing monthly reports on the performance of RH, FP-MCH. The ultimate goal of the HNPSP is to achieve NRR-1 by the year 2011.
The priority objectives of the HNPSP are:
- To reduce Total Fertility Rate (TFR) from 3.3 to 2 by the year 2011.
- To increase Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) from 55.8 % to 72% by the year 2011.
- To reduce Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) from 3 to 2.75 by the year 2011.
- To reduce Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) from 52 to 37 per 1000 live birth by the year 2011.
- To reduce Child Mortality Rate (Under 5) from 65 to 52 per 1000 live birth by the year 2011.
- To reduce the burden of TB and other diseases and To reduce malnutrition.
- (Source: HNPSP, PIP, June 2003). The Health, Nutrition and Population Sector Program has introduced Maternal Child & Reproductive Health Services Delivery Program, Clinical Contraception Services Delivery Program, and Family Planning Field Services Delivery Program to ensure better services, addressing the needs of clients, strengthening service delivery, and improving the management system.
- Population Control Programme in Bangladesh: Past, Present & Future, By IEM Unit, June 1985, Directorate of Population Control.
- Bangladesh’s Population Problem and Programme Dynamics, By Mohammed A. Mabud, January 1992.
Phase XI: 2011-2016: Health, Nutrition and Population Sector Development Program (HNPSDP)
Bangladesh has achieved success in family planning programs against the backdrop of low literacy rate, low status of women, low income, and so on. Despite this, one must note that due to past high fertility and falling mortality rates, Bangladesh’s population has a tremendous growth potential built into its age structure. So, the population continues to remain as one of the most important nation’s problems as well as one of the major causes of poverty. Considering the fact, the government has initiated to update the population policy 2004. Major successes in population sector programs were achieved in expanded access to family planning services with the introduction of a broader range of modern and effective methods. Replacement level of fertility by 2016 at the earliest is the priority vision of the GOB.
In line with this vision present, TFR of 2.3 children per woman (in 2011) needs to be reduced to 2.0 children per woman to attain net Reproductive Rate (NRR) =1 by 2016. To achieve a replacement level of fertility by 2016, corresponding CPR has to be increased to 74% by mid-2016 from 61.2% (in 2011). Further efforts proposed to shift family planning use patterns towards more effective, longer-lasting, and lower-cost clinical and permanent methods covering low performing areas. But the major impact on fertility will be achieved by raising the age of marriage, which will push up the age at first birth, and again trigger a tempo effect, to bring fertility down. Mother and Child Welfare Centers (70) under DGFP are considered as centers of excellence for emergency obstetric care services. Upgrading one-third of MNCH centers to provide adolescent-friendly and reproductive health services and reducing adolescent pregnancies through BCC/IEC are the important activities under DGFP.
Mission & Vission:
The vision is to see the people's healthies, happier, and economically productive to make Bangladesh a middle-income country by 2021.
The mission is to create conditions whereby the people of Bangladesh have the opportunity to reach and maintain the highest attainable level of health.
As a company policy
পরিবার পরিকল্পনা অধিদপ্তর
Directorate General of Family Planning, 6 Kawran Bazar, Dhaka-1215 Bangladesh.